考研教育网,考研英语翻译中

  陈阳—英语教研室

  十、英译汉中的惯用法

  无论在中文行文或是英文表达的过程中,都会出现某个人表达自己的观点的情况。而考研[微博]英语翻译考查的句子中也不乏类似表达,那么下面我们就来看一下,在考研英语真题中,出现了哪些用于表达观点的词语。而对于这些表达,我们又该如何处理。

  参考例年考题

  这些词语根据意义可以分成两类:

  People have wondered for a long time how their personalities and
behaviors are formed. It is not easy to explain why one person is
intelligent and another is not,or why one is cooperative and another is
competitive.

  第一类,直接译为“认为”的动词:

  Social scientists are,of course,extremely interested in these types
of questions. (61) They want to explain why we possess certain
characteristics and exhibit certain behaviors. There are no clear
answers yet,but two distinct schools of thought on the matter have
developed. As one might expect,the two approaches are very different
from each other. The controversy is often conveniently referred to as
“nature vs. nurture.”

  例1.           

  (62) Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe
that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by
biological factors. (63) That our environment has little,if anything,to
do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this
theory.

  Behaviorists, in contrast, say

  Taken to an extreme,this theory maintains that our behavior is
pre-determined to such a great degree that we are almost completely
governed by our instincts.

  that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often
deprivedof many of the educational and other environmental advantages
that whitesenjoy. (1990年65题)

  Those who support the “nurture” theory,that is,they advocate
education,are often called behaviorists. They claim that our environment
is more important than our biologically based instincts in determining
how we will act. A behaviorist,B. F. Skinner,sees humans as beings whose
behavior is almost completely shaped by their surroundings.

  译文:相比而言,行为主义者认为……

  (64) The behaviorists maintain that,like machines,humans respond to
environmental stimuli as the basis of their behavior.

  例2.           

  Let us examine the different explanations about one human
characteristic,intelligence,offered by the two theories.

  Those who support the “nature” side of the conflict believe that our
personalities and behaviorpatterns are largely determined by biological
factors。(1990年62题)

  (65) Supporters of the “nature” theory insist that we are born with
a certain capacity for learning that is biologically determined.
Needless to say: They don”t believe that factors in the environment
have much influence on what is basically a predetermined characteristic.
On the other hand,behaviorists argue that our intelligence levels are
the product of our experiences.

  译文:那些在争论中支持“天性”一方的人们认为……

  (66) Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an
environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her
capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual
development.

  例3.           

  The social and political implications of these two theories are
profound. (67) In the United States,blacks often score below whites on
standardized intelligence tests. This leads some “nature”proponents to
conclude that blacks are biologically inferior to whites.

  And it is imagined bymany that the operations of the common mind can
be by no means compared withthese processes, and that they have to be
acquired by a sort of specialtraining. (1993年74题)

  (68) Behaviorists,in contrast,say that differences in scores are due
to the fact that blacks are often deprived of many of the educational
and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.

  译文:很多人认为……

  Most people think neither of these theories can yet fully explain
human behavior.

  例4.           

  61.他们想要说明,为什么我们具有某些性格特征和表现出某些行为。

  Some philosophers argue

  62.在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的那些人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多是由生物因素所决定的。

  that rights exist only within a social contract, as part of an
exchange ofduties and entitlements. (1997年72题)

  63.这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。

  译文:有些哲学家认为……

  64.行为主义者坚信,人象机器一样,对环境的刺激作出反应,这是他们行为的基础。

  例5.           

  65.支持“天性”论的人坚持说,我们生来就具有一定的学习才能,这是由生物因素决定的。

  The Greeks assumed thatthe structure of language had some connection
with the process of thought,which took root in Europe long before people
realized how diverse languagescould be。(2004年61题)

  66.行为主义者的看法是,如果一个儿童在有许多刺激物的环境里成长,而这些刺激物能够发展其作出适当反应的能力,那么,这个儿童将会有更高的智力发展。

  译文:希腊人认为……

  67.在美国,黑人在标准化智力测试中的成绩常常低于白人。

  例6.           

  68.相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人往往被剥夺了白人在教育及其它环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。

  Darwin was convinced thatthe loss of these tastes was not only a
loss of happiness, but might possiblybe injurious to the intellect, and
more probably to the moral character。(2008年50题)

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  译文:达尔文认为……

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  其它出现表示“认为”的意义的句子还包括1994年的71题,1997年

  特别说明:由于各方面情况的不断调整与变化,新浪网所提供的所有考试信息仅供参考,敬请考生以权威部门公布的正式信息为准。

  74题,2004年的65题和2008年的46题。

  第二类词语,根据词语本身含义来表达观点。

  例7.           

  They want to explain whywe possess certain characteristics and
exhibit certain behaviors。(1990年61题)

  译文:他们想要解释……

  例8.           

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