浅析英语初学者听力能力的提高,2018年6月英语四级写作范文

  二零一八年上八个月全国高级学园法文四六级考试于6月13日进展,腾讯网教育24小时全程关怀,为您带来第一手四六级考试资源音信,以下为法文四级写作范文:

作者郑重宣示:本杂谈是自家独立打开讨论专业所获得的硕果,成果不设有文化产权争论,除文中已经申明援引的剧情外,本杂谈不含任何别的民用或集体已经刊登或撰文过的著述成果。对本文的钻研做出重大进献的私有和国有均已在文中以刚强措施申明。本身完全意识到本证明的法度结果由作者担负。

  如何提高阅读技能

浅析丹麦语初学者听力手艺的巩固

  In modern society, it has been a trend that diverse English
examinations put tremendous emphasis on the ability of reading。 When
facing the subject that, as undergraduates, how we could improve our
reading ability constantly, different people hold different opinions。

摘 要

  As an undergraduate, my proposals related to the means to promote
the reading ability are based on the following aspects。 To begin with,
reading ability, a basic grounding of English learning ability, would
be well improved by unceasingly reading various articles, such as
fictions, magazines and newspapers。 Additionally, as we all know,
writing reading notes is a wise method, which would contribute to
cultivating a positive reading habit。 Along with the analyses of
different kinds of articles, not only can we accumulate a great deal of
knowledge, but also we are able to enhance our reading ability。 Last
but not least, we ought to make good use of the electronic products,
such as iPad and Kindle, which will either improve our study efficiency
or arouse our interest in reading。

趁着世界的满世界化,罗马尼亚语扮演着越来越重要的剧中人物,国内伊始攻读俄文的人也越来越多。然则对于初学者的话,德文听力技巧是他们的二个虚弱而又被忽视的环节,因此抓好他们这一面包车型地铁力量就显得尤其重大了。本文运用了是怎样、怎么样相结合的钻研措施,首先小编提出了炎黄克罗地亚语初学者的现状,然后深入分析了英文初学者葡萄牙共和国语听力才具柔弱的来由,最后针对那么些原因提议了一些一面如旧的有血有肉的缓和难点的建议。

  All in all, on the basis of the causes mentioned above, the
significance of reading can never be overemphasized。 Consequently, my
sincere hope is that all the college students could continue to improve
our abilities in every respect。 Only in this way can we get more
achievements and reach our ultimate goals。

关键词

  怎么样加强演讲技术

克罗地亚语初学者;听力能力;升高

  In modern society, it has been a phenomenon that there are more and
more opportunities to use English, not only in different exams but also
in our daily life。 Among the abilities of using English, speaking
ability must be a practical one that every educated person should
possess。 And the fluency in English expression must be a result of a
set of really tough work。

Introduction

  As an undergraduate, my proposal related to the means to promote
the speaking ability is based on the following aspects。 Speaking
ability, as far as I am concerned, acquires unceasing exercises of
both listening and speaking。 As a consequence, we ought to make good
use of the materials around us, such as the Internet, which will
either improve our study efficiency or arouse our interest in speaking。
The application, Ted, is a perfect example。 It provides us with a
great number of speeches delivered by diverse famous people from all
kind of fields。 Through constantly listening to these speeches and
reading loudly and clearly, our speaking ability must be improved
continuously。

With economic globalization, English, as the communicational tool of the
world’s common language, is more important than before. In China, the
growing trend of learning English makes students learn English much
earlier. In 2001, the Ministry of Education issued the “English
standard”. According to it, for the English beginners, listening ability
is one of the five essential abilities (listening, speaking reading,
writing and translating) and an important part of English practical
ability and also a standard to measure the quality of English teaching.

  To sum up, on the basis of the cause mentioned above, the
significance of speaking can never be overemphasized。 Thus, my sincere
hope is that all the college students could continue to improve their
abilities in every respect。 Only in this way can we get more
achievements and reach our ultimate goals。

Students are the most receptive at their young age, and one’s
development of young stage will influence the development of his whole
life. Thus, the listening ability of English beginners proves
particularly important. Till now, a lot of scholars have studied how to
improve the English ability of the English beginners. Lin Xinshi said
that cultivation of good learning habits is of much essence to English
beginners(林新事,二〇〇〇). He tried to propose some novel ideas and
thoughts about cultivating good learning habits of English language
novices. He stated that the cultivation of good learning habits goes
through three stages: 1) The stage of good habits selecting, 2) the
stage of consolidation and reinforcement, 3) the stage of good habit
using and transferring. A thesis said:“If I were an English beginner, I
would read more stories and listen more tapes. If I were an English
beginner of middle school , I would read and recite beautiful texts
accurately and fluently. I should read more English after class, and
retell the stories to my classmates in simple English. And also, I will
learn some basic grammar knowledge to strengthen my self-consciousness
to study.”(中学课程带领初中一年级版,2001).Liu Xueyun analyzed the common
writing errors of English Beginners (刘学云,一九八三).

  [行文标题深入分析]此番四级写作调查的照样是难题解决型的评杂谈,和17年11月份的标题比较类似。那篇小说的笔触同学们能够那样举行,在首段做好核心引出就可以,而后在二段给出相应的进级阅读和写作技能的具体办法,最终一段总结全文,再度重申阅读和写作手艺的严重性。关于进步阅读和写作能力的办法给出一些思路:学园能够多组织有关活动来推进学生举办平日的开卷和撰写,个人能够多在平凡学习中注重文化的积攒,并多多参与学校组织的连带活动。

Also a lot of scholars have studied how to improve the English
learners` listening ability. In the early of the 1970s, many applied
linguists proposed listening strategy theories, the famous ones are
O’Malley’s and Chaumont’s. They classified the learning strategies used
by the learners in the listening process into: metacognitive strategy,
cognitive strategy, social and emotional strategies (cited from宝建东,
2007). Vandergrift believes that metacognitive strategy is effective to
improve the English beginners` listening ability (Vandergrift L, 1993).
Professor Mendelsohn thinks teachers should help learners use other
means to obtain information(cited from张艳丰,2008). In addition to the
use of video, the multi-media teaching also can be put into use (cited
from张艳丰, 2008). In the English teaching of China, people do not pay
much attention to the listening ability improvement. Currently, the
research of it is just on the stage of description. The intervention
stage is still being explored. As a result, no systematic or
sophisticated teaching can be put into practice. In the 1990s, some
scholars, such as Jiang Zukang did some research on the relationship
between listening strategies and listening ability, and his result
confirmed the validity of listening strategies (蒋祖康, 1994). But just
a few of them studied how to improve the English beginners` listening
ability. In the area of listening teaching of primary school , Xu
Xiuzhen made a research on teaching procedures, technical processing ,
how to interest students, how to deal with the relation between
listening teaching and text teaching ,and the relation between listening
training and thinking(徐袖珍,2002). She believes that teaching should
follow four steps: 1, pre-listening; 2, listening; 3Upon listening
screening; 4, repeated listening. At the same time, she raised the
methods against the above specific issues, such as diversifying of
teaching methods, enhancing the interest of students, etc.
(徐袖珍,2002). Meng Hongtao analyzed the five factors which influenced
the listening ability: 1. vocabulary, 2. grammar, 3. voice, 4. Speed,
5.cultural background, and then raised some corresponding methods
according to the factors. (孟红桃,2004). Xiang Yi believes that English
beginners, especially those in primary school children, should focus on
listening and speaking ability very much (项奕,2010). Although many
scholars have done a lot of research on English beginners and how to
improve their listening ability, they mostly just give suggestions in
theory and most of the suggestions are very abstract.

  来源:新东方

This paper believes what the previous scholars have researched reflects
the importance of improving listening ability of English beginners. As
we all know, listening ability is one of the five essential abilities
(listening, speaking, reading, writing and translating) and an important
part of English practical ability and also a standard to measure the
quality of English teaching. If a student can not listen well, his or
her speaking, reading and other abilities may be affected.

  作者:温尼伯新东方学园董添宇先生

In the following, this paper makes a specific research on how to improve
listening ability of the English beginners on the bases of personal and
school factors .According to these factors, some suggests are offered,
hoping to serve the English beginners.

I. Listening Status of Chinese English Beginners

In China the listening condition of English beginners is not ideal.
Generally speaking, the English beginners are lack of interest and their
teaching strategy is single. In addition, their knowledge on phonetic
and grammar and vocabulary is poor and weak. Besides these, they have
less cultural background knowledge, either.

1.1 Being Lack of Interest in Listening

“Interest is the best teacher”. In practical teaching, in some regions,
especially in the poor regions, the English beginners are lack of
interests due to being lack of the modern teaching equipments in
schools, such as multi-media room, DVD, MP3, etc. Even in some schools,
the modern equipments are placed just for decoration,not for practical
use. Other reasons resulting in low learning interest of the beginners
are the teachers` boring teaching methods, the vapidity of the teaching
materials and so on.

1.2 Weak Knowledge on Phonetic Characteristics and Rules.

Sound recognition involves the identification of voice, intonation,
sound quality and so on. As is known to all, there are only 26
alphabets, but the number of their pronunciations is nearly twice as
much as them. For most students, when they meet these letters in words
or phrases, they can not identify which pronunciation they should
articulate. What’s more, the same letter may correspond to different
pronunciations. And also, different letters can correspond to the same
pronunciation. In addition to the above, in different context,
speakers` voice and intonation are different, so the students can not
learn the phonetic characteristics and rules well.

1.3 Being Weak in Vocabulary and Grammar

The time when students are really involved in English learning is in the
secondary school. And in most primary schools, the time of having
English class is just one or two hours and the teacher seldom emphasize
the importance of vocabulary and grammar. As a result, the students in
primary school just know a few words and vocabularies and they can not
be able to write them, even they know a little about their
pronunciation. So the students feel it difficult to comprehend the
native speakers.

1.4 Being Lack of Knowledge aboutCultural Background.

Background is related to the listening material, the character in the
material , the culture, the lifestyle, and the understanding of concept
and so on. Its main role is to provide the listener judgments,
reasoning, the basis of speculation, etc. The weak knowledge about
cultural background is caused by the following reasons:(1) being lack of
introduction of background timely in material, (2)being lack of
background introduction in teacher’s teaching process (3)students`
neglecting of cultural background knowledge in their preparation
process.

1.5 The SingleTeaching Strategy.

Most teachers are using the “three steps” in their English lesson. The
first step is to listen to the recoding, without using any back
information. The second step is to ask students to do multiple –choice.
The third step is to check the answers. The teaching strategy is very
single. But most students are active and curious; they can not stand the
boring single teaching strategy and demand more various teaching
methods. Their teaching strategy is hard to meet whose demands and easy
to bore them, but the lifelong learning view is based on the students
’interest of English. If the student’s interest can not be satisfied,
they will gradually lose the interest.

II. Factors Influencing the Listening Ability of English Beginners

Factors influencing the listening ability of English beginners mainly
include personal factors and school factors. It is necessary to analyze
them if the listening ability of English beginners must be improved.

2.1 Personal Factors

Personal factors always involve students and teachers. This paper mainly
analyses the factors of students’ and teachers ’attitude, students’
learning motivation and English beginners’ limited knowledge.

2.1.1 Teachers’ and Students’ Ignoring Attitude

Someone says: “Attitude is everything”. Although this statement
exaggerates the function of attitude, to a certain extent, there is
something in it. The effects of attitude on language learning are mainly
reflected in the following aspects: (1) the relation between attitude
and foreign language learning: the learners who are positive to learn a
foreign language may learn it more easily and make progress more quickly
.Conversely, the learners who hold negative attitude towards the study
of foreign language may improve their learning slowly. (2) The relation
between attitude and enthusiasm: attitude directly affects enthusiasm.
Those learners who stop learning after studying for a short period and
can’t last to the ending time are largely passive and negative learners,
the low enthusiasm will result in poor learning. (3) The relation
between attitude and classroom behavior: attitude affects classroom
activities of participation (张锡伟,2010). Guildsman’s research shows
that the student’s good performance is proposition to their good
attitude. Namely a student who holds positive attitude acts more active
in class, and his grades are better (cited from Dardner,R.C, W.E.
Lambert,1972) . Tao Deqing thought that attitude contained a certain
behavioral tendencies by itself. It is a important psychological
phenomenon (陶德清, 2001). From his point of view, we can see the close
relationship between attitude and behavior. Tao Deqing believed attitude
affected social judgment, affordability and activities of the initiative
(陶德清, 2001).

In our present English enlightenment education, including the teachers
and the students, most of them ignore listening teaching and learning
.During the listening teaching of English beginners, most teachers are
just limited to ask students to listen to the videos or tapes in
classroom, and even never give them homework of training their listening
ability. Students at that age, because of their limited cognitive
ability and self-control, also can not realize the needs to improve
their listening ability, or even raise a sense of exclusion. In the
process of teaching. The main characters are teachers and students. If
both locate the listening ability to an unseasonable place, the
listening ability will present a poor state.

2.1.2Ambiguous Learning Motivation

According to many scholars, students’ learning motivation affects
students deeply. As for the English beginners of China, the following
characteristics are common.

2.1.2.1 Having Disgusting Mood of Learning

Being naughty is the nature of children. Pupils sometimes do not like
learning because the school time reduces their time of playing. On the
other hand, the pupils always don’t make their strong resolutions and
the textbooks used in elementary school don’t satisfy the students`
interests because they attach much to their scientific and logical
characteristics. In addition, the teaching method is basically priority
to classroom teaching and the teaching method is single. So the students
hate learning and don’t like to read and have a class, being unable to
complete their assignments. They always look for excuses where they do
not need to learn. In addition, they often use other activities which
are far away from learning to occupy their learning time.

2.1.2.2Being Easily Distracted

The students are often distracted when they are engaging in learning.
When the teacher is having class, they always look around or outside and
can not concentrate on their books and thinking. When they are doing
their homework or exercise, they always want to do something else and
then go to do. For example, they do their homework for 20 minutes and
then play games for another 20 minutes and come back to do homework
again. They are often interrupted by other ideas or activities. Not only
the above, some students are often absent-minded and always listen to
something else when the teacher is having class, even they feel it
difficult to follow the teacher’s instruction to do homework.

2.1.2.3Not Knowing the Learning Goals

Some students are casual when they learn something. They do not know
what knowledge they should get and what knowledge does not suit them.
They always learn something without choosing because they are lack of
initiative and do not know what they should need. They always follow
others` view and do not have very clear goals.

2.1.3 English Beginners` Limited Knowledge

Most English beginners are generally weak in English knowledge because
of their young age and lack of social experience. They are still at a
low level of voice, vocabulary, and grammar .In addition, on the Chinese
and Western cultures, especially the Western culture, history,
geography, religion, politics, customs, and life, their knowledge is not
very rich. Pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc. constitute an
important part of the language. Without such basic knowledge, it is
almost impossible to master a language, especially mastering a foreign
language.

A person’s listening ability relates to the above English knowledge
closely. Pronunciation and tone are the prerequisite to distinguish
different words; vocabularies make up the cells of a language, without
these cells, the language would not exist; and grammar is the framework
of a language. If we want to know what the language says, we’d better
know the grammar. In the process of listening, if people lack these
English knowledge or they do not know the differences between China and
Western countries, people’s listening ability will be affected.

2.2 School Factor

School factors account much in improving the listening ability of
English beginners. In the following, this paper analyzes some school
factors which result in the low listening ability. They are mainly
unreasonable arrangement of listening, the unreasonable schedule and the
unreasonable material selection.

2.2.1 Unreasonable Arrangement of Listening

In the arrangement of listening training course, the teachers are weak
in scientific and systematic arrangement for training objectives of the
students in different semesters and different stages. Too difficult or
too easy scheduling, too concentrated or too decentralized arrangement
will affect the student’s attention and enthusiasm. If the arrangement
is not satisfactory, irregularities, then, the confidence, the attention
and the interest of the students will be affected, and thus, it will
raise a negative impact, lowering the standard of teaching listening.

2.2.2The Unreasonable Lasting Time of Listening Training

The teachers in many schools over emphasize on text teaching, writing
exercise, but put the training of students` listening ability at a
subordinate status .So the time of listening training is not sufficient.

Besides, in listening training, the length of time is not reasonable.
Many teachers focus on the training time excessively and just use the
single training model, So the students are very easy to be tired and the
sufficiency is not satisfactory.

2.2.3Unreasonable Material Selection

Many textbooks chosen by the schools are unreasonable. The students use
the same set of teaching materials which have been outdated over the
years and can not meet the modern students` needs but the teacher
seldom train the students with some listening materials out from the
outdated textbook . A good listening material should relate to very
sides of the society, such as daily life, culture, education, customs,
people, science and so on. And also the sentences of a good listening
material should be brief, oral and connect to people’s affection. The
structure of them should also be brief and should involve much omission.
However, some textbooks chosen do not fit with these.

Ⅲ. Ways to Improve the Listening Ability of English Beginners

After analyzing the factors from personal side and school side, some
suggestions may be given on the ways to improve the listening ability of
English beginners.

3.1 Having a Positive Face Strategy to Cultivate English Beginners’
Serious and Responsible Attitude towards Listening.

Brown and Levinson proposed politeness strategy; they think that
courtesy is people’s need to meet face needs. So their politeness theory
is often called “Face-saving Theory” (referred to as FST) (cited
from黄颖,2006). The so-called positive face, for people, refers to
wanting recognition and praise from others(黄颖,2006). English beginners
are generally not mature enough in terms of age. Although they have the
ability to tell things around, they also need teacher’s evaluation and
guidance and inspiring. Therefore, in the process of listening teaching,
teachers should encourage those students whose listening abilities have
improved. For example, when a student does well in a listening exercise,
the teacher may say: “How wonderful! How did you do that? “or “very
good”. Adding a tag questions after an exclamatory expression shows the
teacher’s surprise and happiness. The later sentence shows the teachers
positive attitude towards the student’s listening ability. Thus the
student’s face in front of the class is raised. This positive politeness
strategy approach encourages the listening ability of students timely
and enables them to establish self-esteem in front of other students so
that their interest, self-confidence and determination will be increased
.these can benefit the students` listening ability.

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